The greatest threat to Wyoming today is our state's economy's heavy reliance on fossil fuels. As the world transitions to alternative energy sources at a rapid pace, Wyoming risks losing more than half of its revenue. Over the past year, as coal mines and oil wells have shut down, entire companies have gone out of business, and thousands of workers have been laid off.
Luckily, there is a solution. We need to expand our economy, and we need to do it in three stages: Rescue, Re-imagine, Rebuild.
Rescue: In the immediate term, we need to provide Wyoming residents and businesses with income and loans so that hard working Wyomingites can feed their families and keep their homes. The 2020 CARES Act, with its more than $2.7 trillion in stimulus funds, is an important initial stopgap measure, but it's not enough. Indeed, the US Congress is considering proposals that would provide each American supplemental income, freeze rent, mortgage and loan payments, and help small businesses during the COVID19 crisis. This would allow us to catch our breath and prepare our state and the nation for the next step: reimagining our future.
Reimagine: Wyoming has so much more to offer than coal, oil and gas; if we stopped viewing ourselves solely as an energy producing state and think more broadly, we can be attractive to a variety of thriving industries that would bring high paying, secure jobs. Think, for example, of the new technologies developed to curb the rise in greenhouse gasses and the innovations they have spurred; innovations that rely on a smart and skilled workforce like we have here in Wyoming. Just consider all the components required to build and operate electric trucks and hydrogen-cell vehicles, or the expertise that will be needed to maintain caravans of self-driving trucks on our highways. Advances in artificial intelligence, biotechnology, material science, and integrative planning, together with serious progress redesigning semi-nuclear reactors and methods to combine solar and hydroelectric power generation, can fuel the future of Wyoming.
Rebuild: President Franklin Delano Roosevelt said “There are many ways of going forward but only one way of standing still.” In the wake of the Great Depression, FDR’s New Deal put millions of Americans to work creating the country’s infrastructure, building bridges, roads, railroads, hydro-electric dams, electric grids, schools and hospitals. The investment it required ($6 billion, or 10 percent of the GPD at the time) repaid itself many times over, both economically and by making the United States a global superpower for decades. The success of the New Deal illustrated that when we have a coordinated and actionable federal plan – and the political will to implement it – our country can emerge from a crisis stronger than it was before. Imagine what a smart federal plan, combined with the technological strides of the past century, can help us do in the upcoming decade.
Diversifying our economy and our workforce while “keeping Wyoming Wyoming” will require a holistic vision and careful planning. Some ideas for rebuilding the state’s economy are clearly delineated in ENDOW (Economically Needed Diversity Options for Wyoming), a 2016 initiative created by former Governor Matt Mead. Others will need to be added. Broadly, we need to address:
Wyoming has some of the country's most beautiful wide-open spaces, breath-taking scenery, clean air and water, abundant fish and wildlife, vast tracts of public lands, and an unparalleled quality of life. Most importantly, we have Wyomingites, who are rugged, adaptable and compassionate. To protect our way of life we should prioritize:
To achieve this, any development plan will require a thorough understanding of our environment. Wyoming's scientists are leading the country in environmental planning - check out the Wyoming Migration Initiative, the Sage Grouse Task Force, and "Wind Power in Wyoming: Smart from the Start".
As your senator I will use these priorities and my science background to garner support in the US Senate for rebuilding and expanding Wyoming's economy while protecting everything we love about our great state.
The national unemployment rate jumped to 14.7% in the last 3 months, leaving more than 30 million Americans jobless. Many states, including Wyoming, are running out of unemployment funds. Wyoming is projected to lose more than 25,000 jobs (12 percent of the private-sector workforce) by this summer, mostly in the fossil fuel and hospitality sectors. In the short term, Congress’s Paycheck Guarantee Act may provide relief, but long-term we need to think bigger. It is time to implement the Federal Job Guarantee program FDR first proposed more than 70 years ago. It was intended to use federal funds to support state-based job creation while guaranteeing employment with a livable wage. Adaptation of this initiative to our times will help job creation and retraining programs in Wyoming. Oil-field workers who lost their jobs when the number of oil rigs dropped from 32 to 4 in the past year can be re-hired to install solar panels at hydro-electric dams, plug up abandoned wells, or build wind farms and electric micro-grids. Coal miners can join the proposed Rare Earths and Thorium mines in Bear Lodge Mountain, or help WYDOT repave our roads and improve them with wildlife overpasses. Such efforts will bring together laborers, planners, engineers, heavy equipment operators, wildlife biologists and more.
The short- and long-term options are vast and should be promoted and supported through federal, state and private-sector partnerships.
As your senator, I will propose and support legislation that will guarantee jobs, livable wages, and new opportunities for Wyoming workers.
In the 20 years I have lived in Wyoming, I have had at least six different general physicians. They were all excellent, but none of them stayed here very long, in large part because their spouses could not find jobs. Although Laramie is a University town of over 30,000 people, many Laramigos have to go to Cheyenne or even Ft. Collins, CO to receive specialized treatment. Rural Wyomingites have even less access to healthcare. If we want to retain our young people and attract new folks who are searching for a high quality of life, we must design a first-rate, accessible healthcare system, one that includes mobile services to reach our far-flung ranchers. To get there, Wyoming should join the rest of the country in expanding Medicaid. In 2019, nearly 54,000 Wyomingites were enrolled in Medicaid and the Children Health Insurance Program - a far cry from the 73,000 who would have been eligible under a Medicaid expansion. While some were able to get health insurance through the Affordable Care Act, at least 6,000 Wyomingites were left without access to any health insurance. This number has likely risen due to the recent layoffs throughout the state.
Leaving people uninsured during the COVID19 pandemic, in which complications have left people with lasting heart and kidney damage, is unconscionable. Further, by refusing to expand Medicaid, Wyoming is expected to lose $1.3 billion over the next decade. This is money that can cover uncompensated medical costs for the state, and support our rural hospitals during this crisis. Previous attempts to pass the bill have failed because the state legislature was unwilling to provide the required state matching funds (10 percent of the total), against the will of a majority of Wyomingites.
The recent COVID19 pandemic and the resulting job losses have shown that linking healthcare insurance to a job is a bad idea. The United States must adopt Universal Healthcare: a system that ensures a basic level of care for all people, where health insurance is independent of employment.
As your senator, I will argue forcefully for Universal Health Care, and ensure that any health care plan will address Wyoming’s specific needs.
Article 7 (1) of the Wyoming constitution states that “The legislature shall provide for the establishment and maintenance of a complete and uniform system of public instruction, embracing free elementary schools of every needed kind and grade, a university with such technical and professional departments as the public good may require.” Indeed, Wyoming has many excellent schools that have been nationally recognized. Continued support for Wyoming education should remain a priority, and recommendations by independent review panels to keep schools properly funded should be adopted by our legislature.
Wyoming’s dedication to education is reflected in the state’s community colleges and the University of Wyoming. Their relatively low tuition, combined with Governor Dave Freudenthal’s Hathaway Scholarship, enable the majority of Wyomingites to obtain a high-quality education without accruing crippling debt. In this, Wyoming should be seen as an example to the rest of the country: a state in which education is viewed as a worthwhile investment and where funding for scientific and other disciplines is a priority.
As your senator, I will support laws that reduce student loan burdens and bolster our higher education system, so as to deliver top-notch instruction in the sciences and the arts and to fuel scientific discovery.
I am a wildlife ecologist who has studied the various effects of invasive species, logging, pollution, and climate change on animals from polar bears and mountain lions to river otters and chipmunks for over 30 years, and I have seen the effects of climate change with my own eyes. While studying pumas in California in the early 2000s, my colleagues and I detected a clear increase in greenhouse gases in those cats’ bones that were collected over a 150 year period. As the chief scientist on a US Coast Guard Icebreaker expedition in 2009, I witnessed vast stretches of the Arctic Ocean completely ice-free at a time of year it should have been frozen over. When I returned to Wyoming, our pine forests had been devastated by an unprecedented bark beetle outbreak.
My observations and data added to a vast body of existing research pointing to humans’ role in increasing greenhouse gases.
Interestingly, our collective efforts to stay at home during COVID19 only managed to reduce carbon emissions by a fraction. It is clear that as long as we continue releasing greenhouse gasses on an industrial scale, we will not be able to address this crisis. Solving it will require national programs and global coordination.
But regardless of opinions about the reality and urgency of climate change, the rest of the world’s transition to clean energy will leave Wyoming behind if we don’t act now. Countries from Peru to Tunisia and Scotland to South Africa are adopting new energy sources at an accelerating rate. Scotland, for example, is expected to reach 100 percent renewable electricity this year. And Sweden accomplished the same two years ahead of schedule.
The past few months have shown us how vulnerable Wyoming’s economy is to crashes in demand for fossil fuels. That is why I am committed to using my science background and knowledge to work with colleagues from both sides of the aisle to enhance renewable energy policy and boost our economy in ways that will secure the future of Wyoming, our nation and the globe. I will endorse legislation that will mitigate the rise in greenhouse gases like a “carbon fee and dividend”, and participate in crafting new ones that ensure we address the effects of climate change.
Between 2015 and 2018, as oil wells and coal mines closed and people were laid off, Wyoming lost fully 1.3% of its population, much of it to out of state migration. Working families leaving Wyoming translates to further economic shrinking and loss of revenue for the state.
Economic anxiety is also one of the main drivers of suicide: at 24 per 100,000 inhabitants, Wyoming’s suicide rate is 1.7 times higher than the rest of the country. Eighty percent of Wyoming’s suicides are committed by men, with the highest rates among those who work in construction and the extraction industries, as well as among farmers and ranchers. Among women, homemakers exhibit the highest rate. In addition to the incredible emotional toll on families and communities, suicides leave substantial financial strain as well.
Twice since arriving in Wyoming, I have assisted close friends as they struggled with crippling anxiety that drove them to substance abuse and suicidal thoughts. In both cases, my intervention brought them back from the brink, for which I’m grateful. I’ve known others who unfortunately succeeded in taking their own lives; it is hard to describe the devastation their actions left.
We need to address this economic anxiety and hopelessness to keep our children and young people in the state and offer them opportunities to build their lives and raise their families here, as well as to prevent substance abuse and self harm.
As your senator, I will work to address economic anxiety by supporting economic plans that future-proof Wyoming's and the nation's economy.
While the majority of suicides in Wyoming are caused by economic anxiety, the most common method used is firearms (64 percent). On two separate occasions when I helped friends who had suicidal thoughts, my first action was to help them secure their guns. There are some cases, however, where people may not recognize that they need help to prevent them from hurting themselves and others.
I’m a hunter and own two rifles and a shotgun, which I intend to keep. I have also used guns for bear safety in many of my research projects and was trained to shoot semi-automatic and automatic rifles during my military service; I know the level of training required to safely operate these weapons and am personally familiar with their devastating capacity to kill.
Our laws should support responsible gun ownership to reduce incidents of suicide and mass shootings. We require people to learn to safely handle guns as part of our hunter training programs; there is no reason we can’t do the same for gun ownership more generally.
As your senator, I will support research into the causes of gun violence in the US and participate in crafting legislation that will promote responsible gun ownership.
There are over 6,000 active duty and reserve military personnel in Wyoming, mostly serving in the Air Force and the National Guard. Together with the nearly 50,000 veterans, they constitute about 10 percent of Wyoming’s population. Many of them have served in Iraq and Afghanistan and returned home with lasting health problems. Quite a few of my students at the University of Wyoming were veterans, many of whom told me of their struggles with physical and emotional disabilities and of their deep frustration trying to navigate the bureaucracy of Veteran Affairs.
As someone who has lived through several wars and served in one, I understand the cost of war. Far beyond the price of tanks and bombs and the obvious devastating loss of lives, the injuries, grief, and economic hardships of the families of our men and women in uniform are not always entered into the equation when we send our troops to war. Indeed, many veterans suffer from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and face a higher likelihood of suicide. As lawmakers, we should consider the true cost of war before deciding to launch any hostile operations. And whenever possible, diplomacy should take precedence to war.
As your senator, I will work to curb the excessive spending on the military industrial complex, to end our protracted wars while maintaining our strategic alliances, and to bring our troops home. In addition, I will work to improve benefits for veterans and their families.
Recent incidents of police violence have brought systemic racism to the forefront of our national conversation. We must rethink the ways in which we keep our communities safe. We don't need tanks and military tactical gear on our streets. Instead, we should invest in de-escalation and conflict management training, in affordable housing and mental healthcare.
But police violence is only one of many inequities Black, Indigenous and People of Color (BIPOC) endure in our country. One need only look at disparities in employment opportunities, health outcomes, educational attainment, prosecutorial practices, predatory loan targeting, mortgage availability, and voting access to see built-in discrimination in most institutions in American life. Due to environmental racism (the practice of placing polluting factories and waste sites near communities of color), Black and Brown children literally breathe different air than their White counterparts.
Today, even conservatives like Mitt Romney acknowledge the extent to which systemic racism impacts Americans of color. It is long past time to right these wrongs.
As your Senator, I will center BIPOC voices when advocating for policies aimed at reducing systemic racism in this country. That includes proposals to increase funding for education and affordable housing, holding companies accountable for pay gaps, conducting health disparities research, championing environmental justice, making it easier to vote, and creating citizen oversight boards to be a check on police violence and brutality.
In 1869, Wyoming was the first territory in the nation that recognized women’s right to vote. In 1890, our legislature even wrote: “We will remain out of the Union one hundred years rather than come in without the women.” Wyoming was the first state governed by a woman, Nellie Tayloe Ross in 1924. Article 1(2) of the Wyoming constitution states that “in their inherent right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, all members of the human race are equal.”
Today, we are failing in our commitment to equality. The gender wage gap in Wyoming is larger than in most of the country: women in Wyoming make 71 cents on the dollar compared to men for the same job. In the current pandemic, unemployment claims filed by Wyoming women rose from 25.4 to 51.5 percent, illustrating the disparity in job opportunities in the state. And although I have seen a shift towards acceptance of the LGBTQ+ community in my 20+ years in Wyoming, our neighbors, friends and family can still be refused access to housing and employment based on their sexual orientation.
As your senator, I will join efforts to ensure equality for all, as outlined in Wyoming’s constitution. Two of my first priorities will be to pursue legislation to close the gender wage gap both nationally and in Wyoming, and to work to implement the Equality Act that ensures no discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity.
Five years ago, in Obergefell v. Hodges, the Supreme Court ruled that the right of same-sex couples to marry is guaranteed by the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. Earlier this year, in Bostock v. Clayton County, the Court ruled that LGBTQ individuals are protected from employment discrimination under The Civil Rights Act. The progress of the LGBTQ rights movement is undeniable - as is the fact that there is far more work to be done.
More than fifty years after the start of the gay rights movement, discrimination against LGBTQ+ people is still common in America. The FBI has found anti-LGBTQ bias is a motivating factor in nearly one in every five hate crimes committed in the United States. Trans individuals, especially trans women of color, are particularly likely to suffer from persecution and violence. According to the CDC, LGBTQ youth attempt suicide at significantly higher rates than their heterosexual peers due to the hostile environment and the resulting mental health effects they face. The National Coalition for the Homeless has also found that LGBTQ+ youth are disproportionately likely to be homeless.
As your Senator, I will do everything in my power to secure legal and social equality for the LGBTQ+ community. I will support the Equality Act, a landmark piece of legislation that would enshrine a suite of protections for LGBTQ+ individuals in civil rights law. I will also vote for the LGBT Elder Americans Act, which has already passed the House, support a federal ban on conversion therapy for minors, ensure accurate identification procedures for non-binary and intersex individuals, push for curriculum reforms that recognize LGBTQ+ history, and advocate for the repeal of the transgender military ban.
More importantly, I promise to center LGBTQ+ voices in my advocacy.
I am a Wyomingite, and as such, I strongly believe in individual liberty and personal choice – the choice to express one’s opinions, to peacefully practice one’s religion, to responsibly bear arms. And because I believe in personal freedom, I recognize every person’s right to choose if and when they want to have children. That includes their right to decide to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, which is never an easy choice. But it is a choice that should belong to a woman and her physician, and not be dictated by any politician or party.
A big step in reducing abortions is to minimize the occurrence of unwanted pregnancies through science-based sex education, access to birth control, and by creating a society of equality where sexual assault is non-existent.
As a senator from a state that believes in personal freedom, I will support a woman's right to exercise control over her own body.
Historically, five main indigenuous tribes called Wyoming home. Today, the Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone are forced to share the small Wind River Reservation (1.8 million acres, down from the original 400 million acres) in the middle of the state. Our failure to meet treaty commitments to indigeous tribes dates back to the 1800s, when lands originally assigned to the tribes were reallocated to homesteading and Land Grant Institutions including the University of Wyoming. Much of southwestern Wyoming sits on land that was originally part of the 1863 treaty with the eastern Shoshone Tribe. And the indignities continue today: as recently as this year, a district court ruled against the Arapaho and Shoshone tribes’ attempt to include Riverton as part of the Wind River Reservation.
The inequities play out on a national scale as well: The Trump administration is attempting to disband tribes, politicians only recently began to pay attention to the problem of missing and murdered indigenous women, and Republican attempts to dismantle the Affordable Care Act will disproportionately impact tribal members.
Wyoming’s tribal members are our neighbors and friends; they share our values, hopes and aspirations. For the past three years, I’ve mentored dozens of young people from the Wind River Reservation as an instructor at the University of Wyoming Native American Summer Institute. Their engagement, motivation, and enthusiasm for exploring our forests have been an inspiration.
As your senator, I will be sensitive to the rights and responsive to the needs of tribal leaders and allocate funds with an eye towards righting historic wrongs.
As an outdoor enthusiast, I am in love with everything Wyoming has to offer. It’s one of the main reasons I came to teach at the University of Wyoming over 20 years ago. I learned to skijor in Alaska, and I still do it here in Wyoming every year. My research projects have taken me to some of the most remote and beautiful parts of the state. I feel fortunate to have experienced these incredible places, and to have met many of the people who share my love of them.
Forty-eight percent of Wyoming’s land (about 30 million acres) is managed by federal agencies, including the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, the Forest Service and the Fish and Wildlife Service. An additional 4.2 million acres are state owned. Wyoming public lands are a significant source of income for the state: the tourism and recreation industry is our second largest source of revenue. In many cases, however, mineral leasing and other developments by private entities limit public access to these lands. The current administration is expediting the auction of public land leases to fossil fuel conglomerates, all the while limiting the opportunity for public input.
A coalition of 78 businesses, 41 non-profit organizations, and over two thousand Wyomingites signed the petition to keep public lands in public hands. Many more participate in our yearly gatherings to celebrate Wyoming Public Lands Day (which was declared a state holiday in 2019).
As your senator, I will work to protect our public lands from being sold and keep them in public hands. I will fight to protect public lands and ensure they provide Wyomingites with clean air and water, access to recreation, hunting and fishing, grazing, and other non-disruptive uses. I will demand that public lands be kept in public hands and managed based on best practices as established by scientific research and by engaging all stakeholders.
Wyomingites are blessed with some of the cleanest water and air in the nation; our levels of air pollution are about half the national average, and most of our water sources are free of contaminants. Much of this can be attributed to the relatively low levels of development in the state, the high prevalence of public lands, and our wide open spaces.
Despite the overall high quality of our water and air, some communities experience severe incidents of pollution. The town of Pinedale, neighborhoods around Cheyenne, and areas near Douglas have been exposed to poor air quality, mostly because of oil and gas extraction. Residents of Laramie, Pavilion, Jackson Hole, and the Wind River Reservation are concerned about contamination of drinking water from various sources. Some of these concerns can be addressed at the state level, but others require enforcement of federal laws.
As your senator, I will fight to enforce environmental protection laws such as the clean air and the clean water acts. I will work to restore regulations that were repealed by the current administration, and close loopholes like the definition of “waters,” which allows mining companies to designate lakes, rivers, streams, and wetlands as waste treatment systems.
Hunting, fishing, and other wildlife experiences contribute more than $1 billion dollars a year to Wyoming’s economy. These activities support thousands of jobs in the hospitality sector and fund conservation efforts by state and federal agencies. Hunting and fishing guides, restaurant and hotel owners, outdoor equipment stores and numerous others rely on revenue from residents and out-of-state hunters and anglers. Maintaining viable native fish and wildlife populations is pertinent to preserving our livelihood and way of life, and over the years we have realized that this work is best conducted by professionals like the nationally recognized Wyoming Game and Fish Department (WGFD).
Wyoming has also been a leader in resolving wildlife management conflicts between state and federal agencies and other stakeholders, by creating task forces like the sage grouse task force and the migration initiative) to create coordinated management and recovery plans. Often, the University of Wyoming Ruckelshaus Institute facilitates solutions by encouraging discussion and collaboration, giving all Wyomingites a voice to reach a compromise. Recently, such successful efforts to resolve conflicts have been hampered by political interventions, often leading to protracted and contentious legal fights.
I am a hunter myself - I believe it is the most humane way to obtain meat. When I can’t hunt and the freezer gets low, I buy only locally raised, grass fed, free-ranging Wyoming beef. Meat from free-ranging animals is healthier and has a much lower carbon footprint than animals raised in feedlots or factory farms. Grass-fed cattle produce less methane than animals fed corn and fermented products. The recent legislation allowing Wyoming ranchers to sell their products directly to our residents is a step in the right direction. It also helps circumvent the problems arising from the COVID19 pandemic where workers in meat packing plants are infected at alarming rates.
As your senator, I will support continued funding of federal agencies responsible for protecting our environment, including the Environmental Protection Agency, the Fish and Wildlife Service and the Geological Survey.
I will ensure sustainable funding for Pittman-RobertsonFederal Aid Programs, recovery of endangered species, and continue to insist on mediated taskforce-driven solutions to ensure the best outcomes for all stakeholders.
I will also pursue legislation that will promote the success of the Wyoming cattle industry through provisions in the Farm Bill and others.
America plays a critical role in the world, and the Senate plays a critical role in American foreign policy. Senators help determine the State Department and Defense Department’s budgets, confirm or reject nominees and treaties, conduct fact-finding missions overseas, and hold hearings on important international issues. And Senators must, when the unfortunate occasion arises, vote on articles of war.
We must take foreign policy seriously, even in normal times. And these are hardly normal times. We are faced with a global pandemic and economic recession, a climate that’s changing faster than anyone predicted, ongoing foreign attempts to interfere in our elections, Russian bounties on American soldiers, and the erosion of democratic norms nearly everywhere we look.
The climate crisis and the coronavirus pandemic demonstrate the importance of international collaboration. But while China is doubling its spending on international diplomacy, the US is missing in action, and critical ambassadorships remain vacant. Retreating from the global stage has real-world consequences for Americans: not only is it hard for us to do business with other countries when no one trusts us, it literally costs American lives.
We must restore our moral leadership and recommit to our allies around the world. We can’t lead the free world if we abandon it.
As your Senator, I will build consensus around a diplomacy first approach, support the peaceful promotion of democracy around the world, work to re-engage with the allies we’ve abandoned, push the U.S. to rejoin international efforts such as the World Health Organization and the Paris Climate Accord, and take the real cost of war into consideration before voting to authorize any use of military force.
Many voters have asked me about my stance on Middle East policy in general and about solutions to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in specific.
My great-great-grandparents immigrated to Israel in the second half of the 19th century, when it was still part of the Ottoman Empire. Part of my family is still in Israel, so although I have lived in the United States for over 30 years, the security and safety of Israel - and peace in the region - are of paramount importance to me.
US-Israel Relations: As the only persistent democracy in the Middle East, Israel has been an essential and close ally of the United States for over seven decades. The strong relationship between our two countries has been fostered by both Democratic and Republican administrations and resulted in fruitful collaborations, scientific discoveries, and technological developments. When I am Senator, I will continue the tradition of promoting cooperation between our two countries, and support continuing US aid to Israel.
Israeli-Palestinian Peace Efforts: The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is highly complex. Past US administrations have made significant efforts to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian dispute, and to negotiate peace agreements between Israel and its neighbors. The current policies of the Israeli government only increase the odds of failure. Expansion of West Bank settlements, unilateral annexation of Palestinian lands, demolitions of houses, forced relocations of Palestinian families, and continued violence contribute to escalation of the conflict. I believe peace can only be achieved if the Palestinian people are treated with dignity, provided with financial assistance to develop a sustainable economy, and their human rights and wishes for self-governance in their own country is guaranteed.
The actions of the current US administration have further degraded the potential for achieving peace in the Middle East, and made support for Israel needlessly partisan. When I am Senator, I will work to re-engage Israel and the Palestinians in a dialogue towards a cessation of hostilities and towards an agreement that will lead to the establishment of two states within defined borders with a shared capital in Jerusalem. The long-term security of both peoples depends on the realization of a two-state solution, and will require an investment in building mutual trust among Israelis and Palestinians.
US involvement in the Middle East: The Middle East has been volatile for many years, with several countries vying for dominance in the region and flexing their muscle through oil production and supply. In the aftermath of the Arab Spring, Turkey's democracy collapsed, Egypt’s government is more authoritarian than before, and a long and bitter war in Syria has left millions of people dead, injured, and displaced. The humanitarian crises in Syria and Yemen are nothing short of genocide.
The US should join our allies from the European Union to provide humanitarian assistance to Syrian refugees and the people of Yemen, and use every diplomatic option to end these wars as soon as possible.
In addition, the US’s withdrawal from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (the Iran Nuclear Deal, JCPOA), the abandonment of the Kurds, and an alliance with an authoritarian and corrupt government in Saudi Arabia have severely eroded our ability to secure stability in the region. I will push for the reinstatement of the US commitment to the JCPOA, accountability for the government of Saudi Arabia for their atrocities in Yemen and the murder of Jamal Khashoggi, and the security of our allies in the region.
Climate Change: Wars are largely about resources, and in the Middle East the most valuable resource is water. The region is projected to experience severe drying as a result of climate change. For a region where millions already suffer from starvation and violence, additional climate-related stresses will be devastating. Any global climate mitigation plan should have specific details for addressing the Middle East, and be developed in conjunction with the region’s countries, before the whole region is fighting for the last drops of water.